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English Tips

Phonological and phonemic awareness: Help a struggling reader with sounds

Phonological and phonemic awareness

When you listen to speakers of a foreign language that you do not understand, you hear a sequence of sounds that you perceive as gibberish. This is because you lack phonological and phonemic awareness of that language. A struggling reader of the English language faces a similar situation. While the …

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Learn 6 types of nouns in your everyday speech


We all know the definition of a noun really well. When asked to name the different types of nouns, however, we often struggle to remember what our teacher said back when we were 7 or 8 years old. Knowing the 6 types of nouns, exactly how they are marked and …

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2 Letter words: Why readers struggle with them

2 letter words

Have you ever noticed that the ‘f’ in ‘if’ and ‘of’ sounds differently? How about the ‘s’ in the 2 letter words ‘is’ and ‘us’ that makes 2 sounds? You’ve probably learned these words a long time ago and never questioned the differences. A struggling reader however is confused about …

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Decoding: Focus on 6 steps when sounding out words

Decoding words when reading

When we tell a struggling reader to “sound out the word”, it means that we expect some decoding to take place. Decoding a word is a lot more than just sounding out the letters of the alphabet. It also involves manipulating letters based on all the knowledge a person has …

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Parts of speech: A simple guide and test to master grammar

Parts of speech

By Joyanne James. Learning the parts of speech in English is not only a topic for school children to get a good grade in English. It affects every type of writing, subject, letter, email, text message, social media post or job application you may write in your lifetime. Get your …

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